Research

Research

Chimpanzee Research 1961-1985

Graph of research trends 1972-1985

From the National Institutes of Health’s Computer Retrieval of Information on Science Projects (CRISP):

Number of CRISP grants* for chimpanzee research 1972–1985

Research trends chart

CRISP: http://crisp.cit.nih.gov/

As shown in the graph above, funding of research using chimpanzees suggests a boom during the 1970s. From 1972 to 1976, there was a greater than ten-fold increase in awards to projects that referenced chimpanzees. That trend in funding remained fairly consistent through to 1985. (Note: data from the CRISP database is not available prior to 1972.)

* To ascertain whether the funded research actually used chimpanzees as part of the experiment or merely made reference to them, Project R&R examined all 67 projects listed for the randomly selected year of 1984. The results indicated that approximately 75% of the studies did involve the invasive use of live chimpanzees.

A partial listing of scientific papers published between 1961–1985 revealing experimentation on chimpanzees

1961—The effect of frontal-lobe damage on delayed response performance in chimpanzees. (1)

1962—Observations of canal sickness and adaptation in chimpanzees and squirrel monkeys in a “slow rotation room.”(2)

1963—Studies on infection and immunity in experimental typhoid fever. Respiratory challenge of chimpanzees with salmonella typhosa. (3)

1965—Biochemical measure of impact stress in chimpanzees. (4)

1965—Effects of positive G on chimpanzees immersed in water. (5)

1966—Experimental study of infectious hepatitis in chimpanzees. (6)

1966—Active and passive immunization of chimpanzees infected with West African and Southeast Asian strains of Plasmodium falciparum [malaria]. (7)

1966—Effects of severe isolation on “normal” juvenile chimpanzees. Health, weight gain, and stereotyped behaviors. (8)

1967—Latent viruses in chimpanzees with experimental kuru. (9)

1967—Cyclically transmitted infections of Trypanosoma brucei, T. rhodesiense and T. gambiense in chimpanzees. (10)

1968—Effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride (ritalin) on psychophysical judgments by chimpanzees. (11)

1968—Virological and clinical observations on chimpanzees exposed to Tahyna virus aerosol. (12)

1968—Studies on infection and immunity in experimental typhoid fever.  Intravenous and intra-lymph node challenge of chimpanzees with Salmonella typhi. (13)

1968—Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (spongiform encephalopathy): transmission to the chimpanzee. (14)

1968—Rapid decompression of chimpanzees to near vacuum. (15)

1969—Transplantations of kidneys from chimpanzees to man. (16)

1971—Tolerances for cerebral concussion from head impact and whiplash in primates. (17)

1972—Impedance changes in deep brain structures following experimental head impact in primates. (18)

1973—Head injury in the chimpanzee. 1. Biodynamics of traumatic unconsciousness. (19)

1973—Transmission of experimental subacute spongiform encephalopathy (Creutzfeldzt-Jakob disease) from chimpanzee to chimpanzee. (20)

1974—Immunologic studies on T and B lymphocytes in chimpanzees: effects of thymectomy and irradiation. (21)

1975—Modification of behavior, vigilance and spontaneous cerebral electrical activity in a case of experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the chimpanzee. (22)

1975—Contrasting effects of morphine on schedule-controlled behavior in the chimpanzee and baboon. (23)

1976—Infection and disease induced in chimpanzees with 6/94, a parainfluenza type 1 virus isolated from human multiple sclerosis brain. (24)

1976—Great apes and rhesus monkeys as subjects for psychopharmacological studies of stimulants and depressants. (25)

1976—Immunity in infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae: duration and serological response in the chimpanzee. (26)

1977—The chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes from the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). (27)

1978—Depression of T lymphocyte function in chimpanzees receiving thymectomy and irradiation. (28)

1978—Application of a fluid-filled spherical sandwich shell as a biodynamic head injury model for primates. (29)

1979—Acute demyelinating disease in a chimpanzee three years after inoculation of brain cells from a patient with MS. (30)

1980—Magnitude and duration of the effects of cocaine on conditioned and adjunctive behaviors in the chimpanzee. (31)

1985—Diagrammatic representation for chromosomal mutagenesis studies. III. Radiation-induced rearrangements in Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee). (32)


Sources

(1) Rosvold HE, Szwarcbart MK, Mirsky AF, Mishkin M. The effect of frontal-lobe damage on delayed response performance in chimpanzees. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1961 Aug;54:368-74.

(2) Meek JC, Graybiel A, Beischer DE, Riopelle AJ.Observations of canal sickness and adaptation in chimpanzees and squirrel monkeys in a “slow rotation room”. Aeromed Acta. 1962 May;33:571-8.

(3) Tully Jg, Gaines S, Tigertt Wd. Studies on Infection and Immunity in Experimental Typhoid Fever. V. Respiratory Challenge of Chimpanzees with Salmonella Typhosa. J Infect Dis. 1963 Sep-Oct;113:131-8.

(4) Hawrylewicz EJ, Blair WH. Biochemical measure of impact stress in chimpanzees.
Aerosp Med. 1965 Apr;36:369-71.

(5) Coburn KR, Craig PH, Beckman EL.Effects of Positive G on Chimpanzees Immersed in Water.
Aerosp Med. 1965 Mar;36:233-45.

(6) Atchley FO, Kimbrough RD. Experimental study of infectious hepatitis in chimpanzees.
Lab Invest. 1966 Oct;15(10):1520-7.

(7) Sadun EH, Hickman RL, Wellde BT, Moon AP, Udeozo IO. Active and passive immunization of chimpanzees infected with West African and Southeast Asian strains of Plasmodium falciparum. [malaria]
Mil Med. 1966 Sep;131(9):Suppl:1250-62.

(8) Davenport RK Jr, Menzel EW Jr, Rogers CM. Effects of severe isolation on “normal” juvenile chimpanzees. Health, weight gain, and stereotyped behaviors. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1966 Feb;14(2):134-8.

(9) Rogers NG, Basnight M, Gibbs CJ, Gajdusek DC. Latent viruses in chimpanzees with experimental kuru. Nature. 1967 Nov 4;216(114):446-9.

(10) Godfrey DG, Killick-Kendrick R. Cyclically transmitted infections of Trypanosoma brucei, T. rhodesiense and T. gambiense in chimpanzees. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1967;61(6):781-91.

(11) Reynolds HH, Salzberg CL, Barker LM. Effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride (ritalin) on psychophysical judgments by chimpanzees. Percept Mot Skills. 1968 Dec;27(3):927-33..

(12) Simkova A, Danes L. Virological and clinical observations on chimpanzees exposed to Tahyna virus aerosol. Acta Virol. 1968 Sep;12(5):474.

(13) Gaines S, Tully JG, Tigertt WD 1968. Studies on infection and immunity in experimental typhoid fever. 8. Intravenous and intra-lymph node challenge of chimpanzees with Salmonella typhi. J Infect Dis. Oct;118 (4):393-401.

(14) Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC, Asher DM, Alpers MP, Beck E, Daniel PM, Matthews WB. 1968 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (spongiform encephalopathy): transmission to the chimpanzee. Science. Jul 26;161(839):388-9.

(15) Koestler AG, Reynolds HH. 1968 Rapid decompression of chimpanzees to near vacuum. J Appl Physiol. Aug 25(2):153-8.

(16) Traeger, J. Transplantations of kidneys from chimpanzees to man. 1969 Primates Med.;3(0):52-4.

(17) Ommaya AK, Hirsch AE. 1971. Tolerances for cerebral concussion from head impact and whiplash in primates. J Biomech. Jan;4(1):13-21.

(18) Douglass JM, Nahum AM, Roberts SB. 1972 Impedance changes in deep brain structures following experimental head impact in primates. J Trauma. Apr;12(4):315-26.

(19) Ommaya AK, Corrao P, Letcher FS. 1973 Head injury in the chimpanzee. 1. Biodynamics of traumatic unconsciousness. J Neurosurg. Aug;39(2):152-66.

(20) Cathala F, Hauw JJ, Escourolle R, Chany C, Castaigne P. 1973 Transmission of experimental subacute spongiform encephalopathy (Creutzfeldzt-Jakob disease) from chimpanzee to chimpanzee. Biomedicine. Jul;18(4):328-35

(21) Gilbertsen RB, Metzgar RS, Seigler HF. 1974 Immunologic studies on T and B lymphocytes in chimpanzees: effects of thymectomy and irradiation. Transplant Proc. Jun;6(2):183-8.

(22) Court L, Cathala F, Gajdusek DC, Rohmer F. Modification of behavior, vigilance and spontaneous cerebral electrical activity in a case of experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the chimpanzee
Rev Electroencephalogr Neurophysiol Clin. 1975 Oct-Dec;5(4):335-43.

(23) Byrd LD. Contrasting effects of morphine on schedule-controlled behavior in the chimpanzee and baboon. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1975 Jun;193(3):861-9.

(24) Lief FS, Rorke LB, Kalter SS, Hoffman SF, Roosa RA, Moore GT, Cummins LB, McCullough B, Rodriguez AR, Eichberg J, Koprowski H. Infection and disease induced in chimpanzees with 6/94, a parainfluenza type 1 virus isolated from human multiple sclerosis brain. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1976 Nov-Dec;35(6):644-64.

(25) Pieper WA. Great apes and rhesus monkeys as subjects for psychopharmacological studies of stimulants and depressants. Fed Proc. 1976 Sep;35(11):2254-7.

(26) Arko RJ, Duncan WP, Brown WJ, Peacock WL, Tomizawa T. Immunity in infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae: duration and serological response in the chimpanzee. J Infect Dis. 1976 Apr;133(4):441-7.

(27) Leonard A, Decat G, Leonard ED, Mortelmans J. 1977 The chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes from the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Mutat Res. Oct;45(1):69-76.

(28) Gilbertsen RB, Metzgar RS. 1978 Depression of T lymphocyte function in chimpanzees receiving thymectomy and irradiation. Transplantation. Mar;25(3):103-9.

(29) Engin AE, Akkas N. 1978 Application of a fluid-filled spherical sandwich shell as a biodynamic head injury model for primates. Aviat Space Environ Med. Jan;49(1 Pt. 2):120-4.

(30) Rorke LB, Iwasaki Y, Koprowski H, Wroblewska Z, Gilden DH, Warren KG, Lief FS, Hoffman S, Cummins LB, Rodriguez AR, Kalter SS. 1979. Acute demyelinating disease in a chimpanzee three years after inoculation of brain cells from a patient with MS. Ann Neurol. Jan;5(1):89-94.

(31) Byrd LD. Magnitude and duration of the effects of cocaine on conditioned and adjunctive behaviors in the chimpanzee. J Exp Anal Behav. 1980 Jan;33(1):131-40.

(32) Paravatou-Petsota M, Muleris M, Prieur M, Dutrillaux B. 1985 Diagrammatic representation for chromosomal mutagenesis studies. III. Radiation-induced rearrangements in Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee).
Mutat Res. Mar;149(1):57-66.

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