Research

Research

Chimpanzee Research 1986–2008

Graph of research trends 1986–2008

From the National Institutes of Health’s Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects (CRISP) database:

Number of CRISP grants for chimpanzee research 1986–2008

Research trends graph
Source: CRISP: http://crisp.cit.nih.gov/

Funding of research using chimpanzees spiked in the late 1990’s primarily due to HIV/AIDS research (see HIV/AIDS page for more information, including number of NIH funded projects.) As the chimpanzee proved to be a poor model, the number of federal grants given for their use in research began to decline significantly after 1998.

A partial listing of scientific papers published between 1986–2008 revealing experimentation on chimpanzees

1988—Intracerebral inoculation of experimental animals with brain tissue from patients with schizophrenia. (33)

1989—Cell-mediated immune proliferative responses to HIV-1 of chimpanzees vaccinated with different vaccinia recombinant viruses. (34)

1989—Challenge of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) immunized with human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein. (35)

1990—Antibody-mediated in vitro neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 abolishes infectivity for chimpanzees. (36)

1990—Nonhuman primates in behavioral toxicology: issues of validity, ethics and public health. (37)

1991—Prevention of HIV-1 IIIB infection in chimpanzees by CD4 immunoadhesin. (38)

1991—Observations after human immunodeficiency virus immunization and challenge of human immunodeficiency virus seropositive and seronegative chimpanzees. (39)

1992—Prevention of HIV-1 infection in chimpanzees by gp120 V3 domain-specific monoclonal antibody. (40)

1992—Expression of hepatitis E virus (HEV)-trpE fusion protein containing epitopes recognized by antibodies in sera from human cases and experimentally infected primates. (41)

1993—ELISA for antibody to hepatitis E virus (HEV) based on complete open-reading frame-2 protein expressed in incept cells: Identification of HEV infection in primates. (42)

1994—HIV-1 envelope-elicited neutralizing antibody titres correlate with protection and virus load in chimpanzees. (43)

1995—Resistance of chimpanzees immunized with recombinant gp120SF2 to challenge by HIV-1SF2. (44)

1996—Immune response to epitopes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural proteins in HCV-infected humans and chimpanzees. (45)

1996—The consequence of passive administration of an anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody before challenge of chimpanzees with a primary virus isolate. (46)

1997—Infectivity and pathogenicity in chimpanzees of a surface gene mutant of hepatitis B virus that emerged in a vaccinated infant. (47)

1997—Successful nucleic acid based immunization of newborn chimpanzees against hepatitis B virus. (48)

1997—A primatized MAb to human CD4 causes receptor modulation, without marked reduction in CD4+ T cells in chimpanzees: in vitro and in vivo characterization of a MAb (IDEC-CE9.1) to human CD4. (49)

1998—Human class I supertypes and CTL repertoires extend to chimpanzees. (50)

1998—Clinical and immunologic effects of a PRIMATIZED anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody in active rheumatoid arthritis: results of a phase I, single dose, dose escalating trial. (51)

1999—The relative resistance of HIV type 1-infected chimpanzees to AIDS correlates with the maintenance of follicular architecture and the absence of infiltration by CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (52)

1999—Licensed recombinant hepatitis B vaccines protect chimpanzees against infection with the prototype surface gene mutant of hepatitis B virus. (53)

2000—The chimpanzee and other non-human-primate models in HIV-1 vaccine research. (54)

2000—Reasons for not using primates in research [Article in German]. (55)

2000—The chimpanzee and other non-human-primate models in HIV-1 vaccine research. (56)

2001—The chimpanzee model of hepatitis C virus infections. (57)

2001—Nonhuman primates: A critical role in current disease research. (58)

2001—DNA microarray analysis of chimpanzee liver during acute resolving hepatitis C virus infection. (59)

2002—Divergence between samples of chimpanzee and human DNA sequences is 5%, counting indels. (60)

2002—Chimpanzee adenovirus CV-68 adapted as a gene delivery vector interacts with the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor. (61)

2003—Failure of immunocompetitive capillary electrophoresis assay to detect disease-specific prion protein in buffy coat from humans and chimpanzees with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. (62)

2003—Analysis of 5′-end sequences of chimpanzee cDNAs. (63)

2003—Comparative sequencing of human and chimpanzee MHC class I regions unveils insertions / deletions as the major path to genomic divergence. (64)

2003—Microarray analysis of nonhuman primates: validation of experimental models in neurological disorders. (65)

2004—Intrahepatic gene expression during chronic hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees.  (66)

2004—Use of primates in research: a global overview. (67)

2004—A demographic analysis of primate research in the United States. (68)

2005—Nonhuman primates are relevant models for research in hematology, immunology and virology. (69)

2005—Demand for nonhuman primate resources in the age of biodefense. (70)

2005—Comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes: searching for needles in a haystack. (71)

2006—Psychopathology in great apes: Concepts, treatment options and possible homologies to human psychiatric disorders. (72)

2006—A Tcell HCV vaccine eliciting effective immunity against heterologous virus challenge in chimpanzees. (73)

2006—Comparative analysis of cancer genes in the human and chimpanzee genomes. (74)

2007—Sex differences in asymmetry of the planum parietale in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (75)

2008—Evidence for protection against chronic hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees by immunization with replicating recombinant vaccinia virus. (76)


Sources

(33) Kaufmann CA, Weinberger DR, Stevens JR, Asher DM, Kleinman JE, Sulima MP, Gibbs CJ Jr, Gajdusek DC. (1988). Intracerebral inoculation of experimental animals with brain tissue from patients with schizophrenia. Failure to observe consistent or specific behavioral and neuropathological effects. Neuropsychiatry Branch, St Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC 20032. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Jul;45(7):648-52.

(34) Van Eendenburg, J.P., Yagello, M., Girard, M., Kieny, M.P., Lecocq, J.P., Muchmore, E., Fultz, P.N., Riviere, Y., Montagnier, L. & Gluckman, J.C. (1989). Cell-mediated immune proliferative responses to HIV-1 of chimpanzees vaccinated with different vaccinia recombinant viruses. AIDS Research & Human Retroviruses 5, 41-50.

(35) Arthur, L.O., Bess, J.W. Jr, Waters, D.J., Pyle, S.W., Kelliher, J.C., Nara, P.L., Krohn, K., Robey, W.G., Langlois, A.J., Gallo, R.C. & Fischinger, P.J. (1989). Challenge of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) immunized with human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein gp120. Journal of Virology 63, 5046-5053.

(36) Emini, E.A., Nara, P.L., Schleif, W.A., Lewis, J.A., Davide, J.P., Lee, D.R., Kessler, J., Conley, S., Matsushita, S., Putney, S.D., Gerety, R.J. & Eichberg, J.W. (1990). Antibody-mediated in vitro neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 abolishes infectivity for chimpanzees. Journal of Virology 64, 3674-3678.

(37) Evans, H. L. (1990). Nonhuman primates in behavioral toxicology: issues of validity, ethics and public health. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 12(5): 531-536.

(38) Ward, R.H., Capon, D.J., Jett, C.M., Murthy, K.K., Mor denti, J., Lucas, C., Frie, S.W., Prince, A.M., Green, J.D. & Eichberg, J.W. (1991). Prevention of HIV-1 IIIB infection in chimpanzees by CD4 immunoadhesin. Nature, London 352, 434-436.

(39) Gibbs, C.J. Jr, Peters, R., Gravell, M., Johnson, B.K., Jensen, F.C., Carlo, D.J. & Salk, J. (1991). Observations after human immunodeficiency virus immunization and challenge of human immunodeficiency virus seropositive and seronegative chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 88, 3348-3352.

(40) Emini, E. A., Schleif, W. A., Nunberg, J. H., Conley, A. J., Eda, Y. et al. (1992). Prevention of HIV-1 infection in chimpanzees by gp120 V3 domain-specific monoclonal antibody. Nature 355(6362): 728-730.

(41) Purdy, M. A., McCaustland, K. A., Krawczynski, K., Tam, A., Beach, M. J. (1992). Expression of hepatitis E virus (HEV)-trpE fusion protein containing epitopes recognized by antibodies in sera from human cases and experimentally infected primates. Archives of Virology 123: 335-349.

(42) Tsarev, S. A., Tsareva, T. S., Emerson, S. U., Kapikian, A. Z., Ticehurst, J. et al. (1993). ELISA for antibody to hepatitis E virus (HEV) based on complete open-reading frame-2 protein expressed in incept cells: Identification of HEV infection in primates. Journal of Infectious Diseases 168: 369-378.

(43) Bruck, C., Thiriart, C., Fabry, L., Francotte, M., Pala, P., Van Opstal, O., Culp, J., Rosenberg, M., De Wilde, M., Heidt, P. & Heeney, J. (1994). HIV-1 envelope-elicited neutralizing antibody titres correlate with protection and virus load in chimpanzees. Vaccine 12, 1141-1148.

(44) el-Amada, Z., Murthy, K. K., Higgins, K., Cobb, E. K., Haigwood, N. L. et al. (1995). Resistance of chimpanzees immunized with recombinant gp120SF2 to challenge by HIV-1SF2. AIDS 9(12): 1313-1322.

(45) Wang, Y. F., Brotman, B., Andrus, L., Prince, A. M. (1996). Immune response to epitopes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural proteins in HCV-infected humans and chimpanzees. Journal of Infectious Diseases 173(4): 808-821.

(46) Conley, A. J.,  Kessler, J. A. II.,  Boots, L. J.,  McKenna, P. M.,  Schleif, W. A. et al. (1996). The consequence of passive administration of an anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody before challenge of chimpanzees with a primary virus isolate. Journal of Virology 70(10): 6751-6758.

(47) Ogata, N., Zanetti, A. R., Yu, M., Miller, R. H., Purcell, R. H. (1997). Infectivity and pathogenicity in chimpanzees of a surface gene mutant of hepatitis B virus that emerged in a vaccinated infant. Journal of Infectious Diseases 175: 511-523.

(48) Prince, A. M., Whalen, R., Brotman, B. (1997). Successful nucleic acid based immunization of newborn chimpanzees against hepatitis B virus. Vaccine 15(8): 916-919.

(49) Anderson, D., Chambers, K., Hanna, N., Leonard, J., Reff, M. et al. (1997). A primatized MAb to human CD4 causes receptor modulation, without marked reduction in CD4+ T cells in chimpanzees: in vitro and in vivo characterization of a MAb (IDEC-CE9.1) to human CD4. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 84(1): 73-84.

(50) Bertoni, R., Sette, A.,  Sidney, J., Guidotti, L. G.,  Shapiro, M. et al. (1998). Human class I supertypes and CTL repertoires extend to chimpanzees. Journal of Immunology 161(8): 4447-4455.

(51) Yocum, D. E., Solinger, A. M., Tesser, J., Gluck, O., Cornett, M. et al. (1998). Clinical and immunologic effects of a PRIMATIZED anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody in active rheumatoid arthritis: results of a phase I, single dose, dose escalating trial. Journal of Rheumatology 25(7): 1257-1262.

(52) Koopman G et al. (1999) The relative resistance of HIV type 1-infected chimpanzees to AIDS correlates with the maintenance of follicular architecture and the absence of infiltration by CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 15: 365-373.

(53) Ogata, N., Cote, P. J., Zanetti, A. R., Miller, R. H., Shapiro, M. et al. (1999). Licensed recombinant hepatitis B vaccines protect chimpanzees against infection with the prototype surface gene mutant of hepatitis B virus. Hepatology 30(3): 779-786.

(54) Nath BM, Schumann KE, Boyer JD (2000) The chimpanzee and other non-human-primate models in HIV-1 vaccine research. Trends in Microbiology
8(9): 426-431

(55) Sauer, U. G. (2000). Reasons for not using primates in research [Article in German]. ALTEX (Alternativen zu Tierexperimenten) 17(4): 217-220.

(56) Nath BM et al. (2000) The chimpanzee and other non-human-primate models in HIV-1 vaccine research. Trends Microbiol 8: 426-431.

(57) Lanford RE et al. (2001) The chimpanzee model of hepatitis C virus infections. ILAR J 42: 117-126

(58) Sibal LR and Samson KJ (2001) Nonhuman primates: A critical role in current disease research. ILAR J 42: 74-84.

(59) Bigger, C. B., Brasky, K. M., Lanford, R. E. (2001). DNA microarray analysis of chimpanzee liver during acute resolving hepatitis C virus infection. Journal of Virology 75(15): 7059-7066.

(60) Britten, R. J. (2002). Divergence between samples of chimpanzee and human DNA sequences is 5%, counting indels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99(21): 13633-13635.

(61) Cohen, C. J., Xiang, Q., Gao, G. P., Ertl, H. C., Wilson, J. M. et al. (2002). Chimpanzee adenovirus CV-68 adapted as a gene delivery vector interacts with the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor. Journal of General Virology 83: 151-155.

(62) Cervenakova, L., Brown, P., Soukharev, S., Yakovleva, O., Diringer, H. et al. (2003). Failure of immunocompetitive capillary electrophoresis assay to detect disease-specific prion protein in buffy coat from humans and chimpanzees with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Electrophoresis 24(5): 853-859.

(63)  Sakate R, Osada N, Hida M, Sugano S, Hayasaka I, Shimohira N, Yanagi S, Suto Y, Hashimoto K, Hirai M. Analysis of 5′-end sequences of chimpanzee cDNAs. Genome Res, May;13(5):1022-6.

(64) Anzai T et al. (2003) Comparative sequencing of human and chimpanzee MHC class I regions unveils insertions / deletions as the major path to genomic divergence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 7708-7713.

(65) Marvanova M et al. (2003) Microarray analysis of nonhuman primates: validation of experimental models in neurological disorders. FASEB J 17 (8): 929-931.

(66) Bigger, C. B., Guerra, B., Brasky, K. M., Hubbard, G., Beard, M. R. et al. (2004). Intrahepatic gene expression during chronic hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees. Journal of Virology 78: 13779-13792.

(67) Carlsson, H. E., Schapiro, S. J., Farah, I., Hau, J. (2004). Use of primates in research: a global overview. American Journal of Primatology 63(4): 225-237.

(68) Conlee, K. M., Hoffeld, E. H., Stephens, M. L. (2004). A demographic analysis of primate research in the United States. ATLA (Alternatives to Laboratory Animals) 32 (Supp 1A): 315-322.

(69) Herodin, F., Thullier, P., Garin, D., Drouet, M. (2005). Nonhuman primates are relevant models for research in hematology, immunology and virology. European Cytokine Network 16(2): 104-116.

(70) Patterson, J. L. and Carrion, R. (2005). Demand for nonhuman primate resources in the age of biodefense. Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Journal 46(1): 15-22.

(71) Varki, A. and Altheide, T. K. (2005). Comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes: searching for needles in a haystack. Genome Research 15(12): 1746-1758.

(72) Brüne, M., Brüne-Cohrs, U., McGrew, W. C., Preuschoft, S. (2006). Psychopathology in great apes: Concepts, treatment options and possible homologies to human psychiatric disorders. Neuroscience and behavioral reviews doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2006.09.002.

(73) Folgori, A., Capone, S., Ruggeri, L., Meola, A., Sporeno, E., Ercole, B.B., Pezzanera, M., Tafi, R., Arcuri, M., Fattori, E., Lahm, A., Luzzago, A., Vitelli, A., Colloca, S., Cortese, R. & Nicosia, A. (2006). A Tcell HCV vaccine eliciting effective immunity against heterologous virus challenge in chimpanzees. Nature Medicine 12, 190-197.

(74) Puente XS et al. (2006) Comparative analysis of cancer genes in the human and chimpanzee genomes. BMC Genomics 7(1): 15.

(75) Taglialatela JP, Dadda M, Hopkins WD. (2007). Sex differences in asymmetry of the planum parietale in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Behav Brain Res. Dec 3;184(2):185-91.

(76) Youn JW, Hu YW, Tricoche N, Pfahler W, Shata MT, Dreux M, Cosset FL, Folgori A, Lee DH, Brotman B, Prince AM. (2008). Evidence for protection against chronic hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees by immunization with replicating recombinant vaccinia virus. J Virol. Nov;82(21):10896-905.

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